A banana peel, called banana skin in British English, is the outer covering of the banana fruit. Banana peels are used as food for animals, an ingredient in cooking, in water purification, for manufacturing of several biochemical products as well as for jokes and comical situations.
Bananas are a popular fruit consumed worldwide with a yearly production of over 165 million tonnes in 2011. Once the peel is removed, the fruit can be eaten raw or cooked and the peel is generally discarded. Because of this removal of the banana peel, a significant amount of organic waste is generated.
Banana peels are sometimes used as feedstock for cattle, goats, pigs, monkeys, poultry, rabbits, fish, zebras and several other species, typically on small farms in regions where bananas are grown. There are some concerns over the impact of tannins contained in the peels on animals that consume them.
The nutritional value of banana peel depends on the stage of maturity and the cultivar; for example plantain peels contain less fibre than dessert banana peels, and lignin content increases with ripening (from 7 to 15% dry matter). On average, banana peels contain 6-9% dry matter of protein and 20-30% fibre (measured as NDF). Green plantain peels contain 40% starch that is transformed into sugars after ripening. Green banana peels contain much less starch (about 15%) when green than plantain peels, while ripe banana peels contain up to 30% free sugars.
Cooking with banana peel is common place in Southeast Asian, Indian and Venezuelan cuisine where the peel of bananas and plantains is used in recipes. In April 2019, a vegan pulled pork recipe using banana peel by food blogger Melissa Copeland aka The Stingy Vegan went viral. During 2020, The Great British Bake Off winner Nadiya Hussain revealed she uses banana peels as an alternative to pulled pork when making burgers in an effort to reduce food waste. Later that year television chef Nigella Lawson used banana skin as an ingredient for a curry on her BBC show.
Banana peel is also part of the classic physical comedy slapstick visual gag, the \"slipping on a banana peel\". This gag was already seen as classic in 1920s America. It can be traced to the late 19th century, when banana peel waste was considered a public hazard in a number of American towns. Although banana peel-slipping jokes date to at least 1854, they became much more popular, beginning in the late-1860s, when the large-scale importation of bananas made them more readily available.[unreliable source] Vaudeville comedian Cal Stewart included banana peel jokes in one of the earliest comedy albums, Uncle Josh in a Department Store in 1903. Before banana peel jokes came into vogue, orange peels, and sometimes peach skins, or fruit peels/peelings/or skins, generally, were funny, as well as dangerous.[unreliable source] Slipping on a banana peel was at one point a real concern with municipal ordinances governing the disposal of the peel.
The coefficient of friction of banana peel on a linoleum surface was measured at just 0.07, about half that of lubricated metal on metal. Researchers attribute this to the crushing of the natural polysaccharide follicular gel, releasing a homogenous sol. This unsurprising finding was awarded the 2014 Ig Nobel Prize for physics.
When the tip of a banana is pinched with two fingers, it will split and the peel comes off in two clean sections. The inner fibres, or \"strings\", between the fruit and the peel will remain attached to the peel and the stem of the banana can be used as a handle when eating the banana.
There has been a widespread belief that banana peels contain a psychoactive substance, and that smoking them may produce a \"high\", or a sense of relaxation. This belief, which may be a rumor or urban legend, is often associated with the 1966 song \"Mellow Yellow\" by Donovan. A recipe for the extraction of the fictional chemical bananadine is found in The Anarchist Cookbook of 1971.
According to a 2015 study, banana peels have demonstrated antibacterial activity against A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis. These bacteria contribute to periodontal diseases, such as gingivitis and periodontitis.
Dessert banana, the most common and eaten, belongs to M. acuminata or hybrid Musa x paradisiaca or M. sapientum (M. acuminata x M. balbisiana) Morton . The most important banana cultivar is Cavendish, which accounts for the bulk of bananas exported from the tropics and subtropics regions. Bananas are an important source of vitamin B6, vitamin C, and potassium.
The chemical composition of six varieties of fruit peels of the banana and plantain was studied by Emaga et al. . Their results reveal that the varieties did not consistently affect chemical constituents. However, the maturation of fruits involved an increase in soluble sugar content and, at the same time, a decrease in starch. The degradation of starch under endogenous enzymes may explain the increase in the soluble sugar content. They attributed the degradation of starch to the action of endogenous enzymes, which may explain the increase in the soluble sugar content. They pointed out significant quantities of amino acids such as leucine, valine, phenylalanine, and threonine. Potassium was the most important mineral element. Figure 2 shows the chemical structures of amino acids found in a banana peel: leucine, valine, phenylalanine, and threonine.
Ehiowemwenguan et al.  studied the antibacterial activity of ethanolic extract and aqueous extract of banana peel. They concluded that ethanolic extract had the least MIC value compared to the aqueous extract. Also, they found that the organic extract of banana peel contains glycosides, alkaloids, flavonoids, and tannins. In comparison, the water extract contains only glycosides and alkaloids.
Rita et al.  reported that the ethanol extract of Musa sapientum peel inhibited 6 bacteria species. However, Musa acuminata peel ethanol extract has antibacterial activity against E. coli, S. aureus, and P. aeruginosa . Wahyuni et al.  reported that n-butanol extract of yellow Kepok banana peels inhibited the growth of S. aureus and E. coli with MIC of 0.5 and 0.1%, respectively, and the total flavonoid and phenolic contents were 0.06 and 0.15%. Ananta et al.  revealed that the peels of milk, gold (lady finger), and wood banana have antibacterial activity against E. coli and S. aureus, where lady finger was the most active. Susanah et al.  attributed the existence of a positive correlation between the content of flavonoids or phenolic and antibacterial activities.
Bananas are sweet, soft fruits popular all over the world. Their thick, fibrous peels, however, are a less popular source of nutrition, at least in Western countries. But contrary to what many people believe, banana peels are not only safe to eat, they also offer a number of health benefits.
In addition to the nutritional benefits of eating banana peels, there are environmental benefits as well. Bananas are the most widely eaten fresh fruit in America. By eating the peels, you can help minimize the amount of food that goes to landfills.
Both bananas and banana peels may offer different health benefits depending on their level of ripeness. Underripe, green bananas may be more effective in treating digestive issues, while riper, blackened bananas have been shown to help white blood cells fight off disease and infection.
The high levels of tryptophan in bananas, combined with the B6 in banana peels, can help relieve some symptoms of depression and other mood disorders. Tryptophan turns into serotonin as it breaks down, which can improve your mood. Vitamin B6 can help improve sleep, which has a positive impact on mood over time.
Fiber-rich banana peels can help regulate the digestive system, easing both constipation and diarrhea. This can be a particularly important benefit of banana peels for people with Crohn's disease or irritable bowel syndrome.
Banana peels are packed with polyphenols, carotenoids, and other antioxidants that fight cancer-causing free radicals in your body. Eating more banana peels, especially green, unripe peels, can increase your antioxidant levels and help reduce your risk of cancer.
Unlike the inside of a banana, which is soft and sweet, a banana peel is harder and more bitter. The more ripe your banana, the sweeter and softer the peel will be. It's also important to wash the peel thoroughly to remove any fertilizer or chemicals the fruit may have been sprayed with.
The additional flavour profile comes from an unlikely source, banana peel. As an extract, banana peel provides a fresh toffee note with a fruity balance that perfectly complements the complexity of the base rum.
The Triple Banana serves as a replacement for the Banana Bunch, instead of being a row of five bananas, it's now a row of three bananas. It also appears in Mario Kart: Double Dash!!, but only when a Giant Banana is touched. It appears in Mario Kart DS, Mario Kart Wii, Mario Kart 7, Mario Kart 8, and Mario Kart 8 Deluxe.
A banana thrown earlier this season by supporters of RCD Espanyol during the La Liga match between RCD Espanyol and FC Barcelona at Cornella-El Prat Stadium. Alex Caparros/Getty Images hide caption
While sports fan in the U.S. have been focused this week on the Donald Sterling scandal, European soccer fans have been talking about another racial incident. At a match between FC Barcelona (popularly known as Barça) and Villareal CF in Spain this past weekend, Brazilian player Dani Alves was setting up to take a corner kick when a banana, thrown by a fan, landed in front of him on the pitch. (You know, because racist taunts are never subtle.)
Dubois pointed out an irony that shows how messy tribalism can be: \"In almost every case where fans have thrown bananas onto the pitch against players on the other team, those fans have been ch